2 items tagged with 'smoking'.
Tobacco use is associated with reduced amplitude and intensity dependence of the cortical auditory evoked N1-P2 component.
RATIONALE: Tobacco use is linked to cerebral atrophy and reduced cognitive performance in later life. However, smoking-related long-term effects on brain function remain largely uncertain. Previous … studies suggest that nicotine affects serotonergic signaling, and the intensity dependence (alias loudness dependence) of the auditory evoked N1-P2 potential has been proposed as a marker of serotonergic neurotransmission. OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we assesed the effects of chronic smoking on amplitude and intensity dependence of the auditory evoked N1-P2 potential. METHODS: Subjects underwent a 15-min intensity dependence of auditory evoked potentials (IAEP) paradigm. From N = 1739 eligible subjects (40-79 years), we systematically matched current smokers, ex-smokers, and never-smokers by sex, age, alcohol and caffeine consumption, and socioeconomic status. Between-group differences and potential dose-dependencies were evaluated. RESULTS: Analyses revealed higher N1-P2 amplitudes and intensity dependencies in never-smokers relative to ex- and current smokers, with ex-smokers exhibiting intermediate intensity dependencies. Moreover, we observed pack years and number of cigarettes consumed per day to be inversely correlated with amplitudes in current smokers. CONCLUSIONS: According to the IAEP serotonin hypothesis, our results suggest serotonin activity to be highest in current smokers, intermediate in ex-smokers, and lowest in never-smokers. To our knowledge, the present study is the first providing evidence for a dose-dependent reduction in N1-P2 amplitudes. Further, we extend prior research by showing reduced amplitudes and intensity dependencies in ex-smokers even 25 years, on average, after cessation. While we can rule out several smoking-related confounders to bias observed associations, causal inferences remain to be established by future longitudinal studies.
Authors: P. Jawinski, N. Mauche, C. Ulke, J. Huang, J. Spada, C. Enzenbach, C. Sander, U. Hegerl, T. Hensch
Date Published: 18th Mar 2016
Publication Type: Not specified
PubMed ID: 26983415
Citation: Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2016 Jun;233(11):2173-2183. doi: 10.1007/s00213-016-4268-z. Epub 2016 Mar 17.
Created: 10th May 2019 at 13:58, Last updated: 7th Dec 2021 at 17:58
The Speaking Voice in the General Population: Normative Data and Associations to Sociodemographic and Lifestyle Factors.
OBJECTIVES: Normative data concerning the speaking voice in the general population were gathered with the aim to establish standard values for clinical diagnostics. Associations between the speaking … voice and sociodemographic factors were examined. STUDY DESIGN: This is a prospective cross-sectional population-based study. METHODS: Speaking voice profiles were measured for 2472 (1154 male and 1318 female) participants between the ages of 40 and 79 years, using four speaking voice intensity levels: softest speaking voice (I), conversational voice (II), classroom voice (III), and shouting voice (IV). Smoking status and socioeconomic status were assessed. Data were analyzed using multivariate regression. RESULTS: The mean voice frequencies were 111.8 Hz for male and 161.3 Hz for female participants (I), 111.9 Hz for male and 168.5 Hz for female participants (II), 130.2 Hz for male and 198.0 Hz for female participants (III), and 175.5 Hz for male and 246.2 Hz for female participants (IV). Frequencies increased significantly with age for male but not for female participants. Sound pressure levels rose significantly with age at intensity levels I-III for both sexes, but decreased at intensity level IV. Frequencies and sound pressure levels were similar between nonsmokers and former smokers. Current smokers showed significantly lower frequencies as opposed to non- and former smokers. Speaking voice range and dynamics increased with higher socioeconomic status. CONCLUSIONS: The data are suitable as age-adjusted normative values for clinical measurement of the speaking voice. The mean fundamental speaking voice frequency of female participants was six to seven semitones lower than previously described.
Authors: M. Berg, M. Fuchs, K. Wirkner, M. Loeffler, C. Engel, T. Berger
Date Published: 3rd Jul 2016
Publication Type: Journal article
PubMed ID: 27370073
Citation: J Voice. 2017 Mar;31(2):257.e13-257.e24. doi: 10.1016/j.jvoice.2016.06.001. Epub 2016 Jun 28.
Created: 10th Apr 2019 at 09:31, Last updated: 7th Dec 2021 at 17:58