2 items tagged with 'self-regulation'.
Risk of dementia in older adults with low versus high occupation-based motivational processes: differential impact of frequency and proximity of social network.
OBJECTIVES: This study investigates the impact of occupation-based motivational processes and social network variables on the incidence of dementia over 8 years. METHOD: Data were derived from the … Leipzig Longitudinal Study of the Aged (LEILA75+), a population-based longitudinal study of individuals aged 75 years and older (n=1692 at baseline). Motivational processes were estimated based on the main occupation using the Occupational Information Network database. RESULTS: In a Cox proportional hazard model, motivational processes were not associated with the risk of dementia (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.93, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.74-1.16). Individuals with a higher frequency of social contact at baseline had a significantly lower risk of dementia (HR: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.91-0.99), while proximity of social contacts was not linked to the risk of dementia (HR: 1.03, 95% CI: 0.98-1.08). In individuals with low indices of motivational processes, the frequency of social contacts was associated with a lower risk of dementia (HR: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.88-1.00). On the other hand, proximity of social contacts was linked to a higher risk of dementia in individuals with high indices of motivational processes (HR: 1.09, 95% CI: 1.01-1.19). DISCUSSION: Results indicate that the frequency and proximity of social contacts have a differential impact on the risk of dementia according to lower or higher indices of motivational processes, while the impact of motivational processes on risk of dementia could not be confirmed. Future studies should carefully disentangle different aspects of social interactions and their association with motivational processes.
Authors: S. Fankhauser, S. Forstmeier, A. Maercker, M. Luppa, T. Luck, S. G. Riedel-Heller
Date Published: 29th Nov 2014
Publication Type: Not specified
Human Diseases: dementia
PubMed ID: 25431449
Citation: J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. 2015 Jun;28(2):126-35. doi: 10.1177/0891988714554706. Epub 2014 Nov 26.
Created: 9th May 2019 at 09:28, Last updated: 7th Dec 2021 at 17:58
Association between mental demands at work and cognitive functioning in the general population - results of the health study of the Leipzig research center for civilization diseases (LIFE).
BACKGROUND: The level of mental demands in the workplace is rising. The present study investigated whether and how mental demands at work are associated with cognitive functioning in the general … population. METHODS: The analysis is based on data of the Health Study of the Leipzig Research Centre for Civilization Disease (LIFE). 2,725 participants aged 40-80 years underwent cognitive testing (Trail-Making Test, Verbal Fluency Test) and provided information on their occupational situation. Participants over the age of 65 years additionally completed the Mini-Mental State Examination. Mental demands at work were rated by a standardized classification system (O*NET). The association between mental demands and cognitive functioning was analyzed using Generalized Linear Modeling (GENLIN) adjusted for age, gender, self-regulation, working hour status, education, and health-related factors. RESULTS: Univariate as well as multivariate analyses demonstrated significant and highly consistent effects of higher mental demands on better performance in cognitive testing. The results also indicated that the effects are independent of education and intelligence. Moreover, analyses of retired individuals implied a significant association between high mental demands at work of the job they once held and a better cognitive functioning in old age. CONCLUSIONS: In sum, our findings suggest a significant association between high mental demands at work and better cognitive functioning. In this sense, higher levels of mental demands - as brought about by technological changes in the working environment - may also have beneficial effects for the society as they could increase cognitive capacity levels and might even delay cognitive decline in old age.
Authors: F. S. Then, T. Luck, M. Luppa, K. Arelin, M. L. Schroeter, C. Engel, M. Loffler, J. Thiery, A. Villringer, S. G. Riedel-Heller
Date Published: 11th Jun 2014
Publication Type: Not specified
PubMed ID: 24914403
Citation: J Occup Med Toxicol. 2014 May 28;9:23. doi: 10.1186/1745-6673-9-23. eCollection 2014.
Created: 9th May 2019 at 08:39, Last updated: 7th Dec 2021 at 17:58